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    每日arxiv阅读 每日arxiv:20240527AI科研助手
    0. Diffuse Boosted Cosmic Neutrino Background id:2301.06104:id在线阅读
    Gonzalo Herrera, Shunsaku Horiuchi, Xiaolin Qi
    Energetic cosmic rays scatter off the cosmic neutrino background throughout the history of the Universe, yielding a diffuse flux of cosmic relic neutrinos boosted to high energies. We calculate this flux under different assumptions of the cosmic-ray flux spectral slope and redshift evolution. The non-observation of the diffuse flux of boosted relic neutrinos with current high-energy neutrino experiments already excludes an average cosmic neutrino background overdensity larger than $\sim 10^{4}$ over cosmological distances. We discuss the future detectability of the diffuse flux of boosted relic neutrinos in light of neutrino overdensity estimates and cosmogenic neutrino backgrounds.

    1. Transverse Momentum Dependent PDFs in Chiral Effective Theory id:1111.5620:id在线阅读
    Marston Copeland, Thomas Mehen
    We develop a theoretical framework to match transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMD PDFs) onto chiral effective theory operators. In this framework the TMD PDF is expressed as a convolution of TMD hadronic distribution functions, which describe fluctuations of initial states into intermediate hadrons in chiral perturbation theory, and short distance matching coefficients, which are the TMD PDFs of intermediate hadrons in the chiral limit. The various limits of the matching condition are explored and an operator product expansion is applied to the high energy TMD matching coefficients, allowing them to be written in terms of the collinear valence PDFs of intermediate hadrons. As an example, we calculate the isovector TMD hadronic distribution functions for the proton at leading order in the chiral expansion.

    2. Beta decay and related processes from an angular momentum perspective id:0705.0084:id在线阅读
    Gordon Baym, Jen-Chieh Peng, C. J. Pethick
    We ask the question of how angular momentum is conserved in weak interaction processes, beginning with inverse beta decay for massless neutrinos and electrons, in which both the incident neutrino and final electron are in helicity eigenstates with respect, however, to {\em different} directions. To elucidate the problem we recast the final electron state in terms of a spherical Dirac wave. We then generalize these results to massive neutrinos and electrons, and finally examine electron-positron annihilation processes through the same lens. In all these processes, the apparent non-conservation of angular momentum is a result of the quantum measurement process in which the measuring apparatus is not in an initially well-defined quantum state, but is coupled to the outside world; the measuring process, being outside the rules of elementary quantum mechanics, does not allow a satisfactory accounting of the angular momentum transfer.

    3. Study of the $B^{+}\to\pi^{+}\left(\pi^{+}\pi^{-}\right)$ decay in PQCD Approach id::id在线阅读
    Qin Chang, Lei Yang, Zhi-Tian Zou, Ying Li
    Based on the fitting results of the LHCb collaboration on the contributions of various intermediate resonances to the $B^{+}\to\pi^{+}\pi^{+}\pi^{-}$ decay, we make systematically calculate the branching fractions and localized $CP$ asymmetries of the quasi-two-body $B^{+}\to \pi^{+} \left( \rho(770), \omega(782), \rho(1450), f_{2}\left(1270\right)\to\right)\pi^{+}\pi^{-}$ decays within the perturbative QCD (PQCD) approach. Our theoretical predictions for the branching fractions agree well with the data within the errors. In order to further test the framework of the three-body $B$ decays in PQCD and the wave functions of $\pi\pi$ pair, we also calculate the branching fractions of the corresponding two-body $B^{+}\to\pi^{+}\rho(770)$, $B^{+}\to\pi^{+}\omega(782)$ and $B^{+}\to\pi^{+}f_{2}\left(1270\right)$ decays under the narrow-width-approximation, which are in consistence with the experimental data. The direct $CP$ asymmetries of $B^{+}\to\pi^{+}(\rho(770/1450)\to) \pi^{+}\pi^{-}$ decays are found to be very small because these decay modes are tree-dominated. However, due to the large penguin contributions from the chiral enhanced annihilation diagrams, $B^{+}\to\pi^{+} (f_{2}\left(1270\right)\to )\pi^{+}\pi^{-}$ decay has a large direct $CP$ asymmetry, which is also discovered by LHCb collaboration. A relatively large $CP$ asymmetry is also expected in the $B^+\to\pi^+ (\omega\to)\pi^+\pi^-$ decay occurring via $\rho-\omega$ mixing, which would be measured LHCb and Belle-II experiments in future.

    4. Heavy Neutrino as Dark Matter in a Neutrinophilic U(1) Model id::id在线阅读
    Waleed Abdallah, Anjan Kumar Barik, Santosh Kumar Rai, Tousik Samui
    We study the prospect of heavy singlet neutrinos as a dark matter (DM) candidate within a neutrinophilic U(1) model, where the Standard Model (SM) is extended with a U(1) gauge symmetry, and neutrino mass and oscillation parameters are explained through an inverse see-saw mechanism. The lightest of the heavy neutrinos plays the role of the DM while the newly introduced scalars and the extra gauge boson Z' act as mediators between the dark sector and the SM sector. We show the range of model parameters where this DM candidate can be accommodated in the Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) or Feebly Interacting Massive Particle (FIMP) scenario. The observed DM relic density is achieved via the new gauge boson and singlet scalar portals in the WIMP scenario whereas within the FIMP scenario, these two particles assume a distinct yet pivotal role in generating the observed relic density of dark matter.

    5. Exploring Baryon Resonances with Transition Generalized Parton Distributions: Status and Perspectives id::id在线阅读
    Stefan Diehl, Kyungseon Joo, Kirill Semenov-Tian-Shansky, Christian Weiss, Vladimir Braun, Wen-Chen Chang, Pierre Chatagnon, Martha Constantinou, Yuxun Guo, Parada T. P. Hutauruk, Hyon-Suk Jo, Andrey Kim, Jun-Young Kim, Peter Kroll, Shunzo Kumano, Chang-Hwan Lee, Simonetta Liuti, Ronan McNulty, Hyeon-Dong Son, Pawel Sznajder, Ali Usman, Charlotte Van Hulse, Marc Vanderhaeghen, Michael Winn
    QCD gives rise to a rich spectrum of excited baryon states. Understanding their internal structure is important for many areas of nuclear physics, such as nuclear forces, dense matter, and neutrino-nucleus interactions. Generalized parton distributions (GPDs) are an established tool for characterizing the QCD structure of the ground-state nucleon. They are used to create 3D tomographic images of the quark/gluon structure and quantify the mechanical properties such as the distribution of mass, angular momentum and forces in the system. Transition GPDs extend these concepts to $N \rightarrow N^\ast$ transitions and can be used to characterize the 3D structure and mechanical properties of baryon resonances. They can be probed in high-momentum-transfer exclusive electroproduction processes with resonance transitions $e + N \rightarrow e' + M + N^\ast$, such as deeply-virtual Compton scattering ($M = \gamma$) or meson production ($M = \pi, K$, $etc.$), and in related photon/hadron-induced processes. This White Paper describes a research program aiming to explore baryon resonance structure with transition GPDs. This includes the properties and interpretation of the transition GPDs, theoretical methods for structures and processes, first experimental results from JLab 12 GeV, future measurements with existing and planned facilities (JLab detector and energy upgrades, COMPASS/AMBER, EIC, EicC, J-PARC, LHC ultraperihperal collisions), and the theoretical and experimental developments needed to realize this program.

    6. Study some two loop contribution to moun MDM in the N-B-LSSM id::id在线阅读
    Xing-Yu Han, Shu-Min Zhao, Long Ruan, Xi Wang, Xing-Xing Dong, Tai-Fu Feng
    It is well known that the muon magnetic dipole moment (MDM) has close relation with the new physics (NP) in the development of the Standard Model (SM). Combined with the Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) and the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) E821 result, the departure from the SM prediction is about 5.0 $\sigma$. We study the electroweak corrections from several type two-loop SUSY diagrams and the virtual SUSY particles include chargino, neutralino, scalar lepton and scalar neutrino. Based on the latest experimental constraints, we study the moun MDM under the next to the minimal supersymmetric extension of the SM with local B-L gauge symmetry (N-B-LSSM). The abundant numerical results verify that $\tan{\beta},~T_e,~M^2_L,~M^2_e,~M_{BB'}$ and $M^2_{eij}$ play an important role in moun MDM . $M^2_e,~\tan{\beta}$ and $T_e$ are sensitive parameters to the process of moun MDM. From the data obtained in the figure, most of $a_{\mu}^{NBL}$ are in 2$\sigma$, which can compensate the departure between the experiment data and the SM prediction.

    7. Jet Quenching of the Heavy Quarks in the Quark-Gluon Plasma and the Nonadditive Statistics id::id在线阅读
    Trambak Bhattacharyya, Eugenio Megias, Airton Deppman
    Using the Plastino-Plastino (PP) equation, we calculate transport coefficients of the heavy-quarks traversing inside the quark-gluon plasma, and generalize their relationship with differential energy loss. The PP equation indicates anomalous diffusion of the probe particles and yields a quasi-exponential stationary distribution obtained also from the nonadditive statistics proposed by C. Tsallis. We estimate energy loss in a nonadditive quark-gluon medium, and calculate the jet-quenching parameter ($\hat{q}$) for the PP dynamics. With the help of the estimate of $\hat{q}$, we calculate the nuclear suppression factor ($R_{\text{AA}}$) of the heavy-quarks passing through a nonadditive quark-gluon plasma using the model proposed by Dokshitzer and Kharzeev. In many a case, the parameters in the analysis are fixed from the experimental results to minimize arbitrariness. There is a good agreement between the theoretical calculation and experimental $R_{\text{AA}}$ data, indicating that fast heavy-quarks may be subjected to anomalous diffusion inside the QGP.

    8. Magnetic effects in the Hadron Resonance Gas id::id在线阅读
    Michał Marczenko, Michał Szymański, Pok Man Lo, Bithika Karmakar, Pasi Huovinen, Chihiro Sasaki, Krzysztof Redlich
    We discuss the modeling of the hadronic phase of QCD at finite magnetic field in the framework of hadron resonance gas (HRG). We focus on the statistical description of particle yields that include contribution from resonance decays. We demonstrate that the swift increase in the number of protons with magnetic field predicted in the HRG is due to the ill-defined description of higher-spin states. We discuss fluctuations of conserved charges and show that at present the qualitative comparison of the model predictions with the Lattice QCD data should be treated with care. We also discuss the principle of detailed balance which allows to study the magnetic field dependence of neutral resonances.

    9. Inverse Radon transforms: analytical and Tikhonov-like regularizations of inversion id::id在线阅读
    I.V. Anikin, Xurong Chen
    We study the influence of analytical regularization used in the generalized function (distribution) space to the Tikhonov regularization procedure utilized in the different versions of Moore-Penrose's inversion. By introducing a new analytical term to the Tikhonov regularization of Moore-Penrose's inversion procedure, we derive new optimization conditions that extend the Tikhonov regularization framework and influence the fitting parameter. This enhancement yields a more robust and accurate reconstruction of physical quantities, demonstrating its potential impact on various studies. We illustrate the significance of new term through schematic examples of physical applications, highlighting its relevance to diverse fields. Our findings provide a valuable tool for improving inversion methods and their applications in physics and beyond.

    10. A mass for the dual axion id::id在线阅读
    Arthur Platschorre
    In this article we study a modification of axion physics in which the dual axion acquires a mass. This mass explicitly breaks the shift symmetry of the dual axion. The potential breaking of this shift symmetry poses a dual axion quality problem. When the dual axion acquires a mass, the axion gets eaten and becomes the longitudinal degree of freedom of a massive vector field. In this phase, axion strings are screened and far-separated instanton configurations are exponentially suppressed. This confinement of instantons corresponds to the worldline action of a particle-like soliton traveling between the instantons analogous to Abrikosov/Nielsen-Oleson vortex solitons that stretch between confined magnetic monopoles in a superconductor. We calculate the cost of this additional worldline suppression and provide several models in which both the confined instantons and confining worldline are dynamical.

    11. Fast Inference Using Automatic Differentiation and Neural Transport in Astroparticle Physics id::id在线阅读
    Dorian W. P. Amaral, Shixiao Liang, Juehang Qin, Christopher Tunnell
    Multi-dimensional parameter spaces are commonly encountered in astroparticle physics theories that attempt to capture novel phenomena. However, they often possess complicated posterior geometries that are expensive to traverse using techniques traditional to this community. Effectively sampling these spaces is crucial to bridge the gap between experiment and theory. Several recent innovations, which are only beginning to make their way into this field, have made navigating such complex posteriors possible. These include GPU acceleration, automatic differentiation, and neural-network-guided reparameterization. We apply these advancements to astroparticle physics experimental results in the context of novel neutrino physics and benchmark their performances against traditional nested sampling techniques. Compared to nested sampling alone, we find that these techniques increase performance for both nested sampling and Hamiltonian Monte Carlo, accelerating inference by factors of $\sim 100$ and $\sim 60$, respectively. As nested sampling also evaluates the Bayesian evidence, these advancements can be exploited to improve model comparison performance while retaining compatibility with existing implementations that are widely used in the natural sciences.

    12. Galaxy Groups in the presence of Cosmological Constant: Re-Mapping the close-by galaxies id::id在线阅读
    David Benisty, Moshe M. Chaichian, Anca Tureanu
    Boundaries of galaxy groups and clusters are defined by the interplay between the Newtonian attractive force and the local repulsion force caused by the expansion of the Universe. This research extends the definition of zero radial acceleration surface (ZRAS) and the turnaround surface (TS) for a general distribution of the masses in an expanding background, governed by the cosmological constant. We apply these definitions for different galaxy groups in the local Universe, mapping these groups up to ten megaparsec. We discuss the dipole and the quadrupole rate for the Local Group of Galaxies and the implementations for Hubble diagram correction and galaxy groups viralization. With these definitions, we indicate the surfaces showing the interplay between the local expansion vs the local Newtonian attraction for galaxy groups in the local Universe. The results show that it is important to include the cosmological constant in analyzing the Cosmic Flow of the local Universe.

    13. First detection of X-ray pulsations and spectrum of the high Galactic latitude pulsar PSR J0837-2454 and direct Urca cooling implications id::id在线阅读
    Wynn C. G. Ho (Haverford), Nihan Pol (Oregon State), Adam T. Deller (Swinburne), Werner Becker (MPE)
    PSR J0837-2454 is a young 629 ms radio pulsar whose uncertain distance has important implications. A large distance would place the pulsar far out of the Galactic plane and suggest it is the result of a runaway star, while a short distance would mean the pulsar is extraordinarily cold. Here we present further radio observations and the first deep X-ray observation of PSR J0837-2454. Data from the Parkes Murriyang telescope show flux variations over short and long timescales and also yield an updated timing model, while the position and proper motion (and, less strongly, parallax) of the pulsar are constrained by a number of low-significance detections with the Very Long Baseline Array. XMM-Newton data enable detection of X-ray pulsations for the first time from this pulsar and yield a spectrum that is thermal and blackbody-like, with a cool blackbody temperature ~70 eV or atmosphere temperature ~50 eV, as well as a small hotspot. The spectrum also indicates the pulsar is at a small distance of <~1 kpc, which is compatible with the marginal VLBA parallax constraint that favours a distance of >~330 pc. The low implied X-ray luminosity (~3x10^31 erg s^-1 at 0.9 kpc) suggests PSR J0837-2454 has a mass high enough that fast neutrino emission from direct Urca reactions operates in this young star and points to a nuclear equation of state that allows for direct Urca reactions at the highest densities present in neutron star cores.

    14. Scale-dependent chirality as a smoking gun for Abelian gauge fields during inflation id::id在线阅读
    Ogan Özsoy, Alexandros Papageorgiou, Matteo Fasiello
    Axion-inflation models are a compelling candidate as a mechanism behind the accelerated expansion in the early universe in light of the possibility to embed them in higher dimensional UV complete theories and the exciting prospect of testing them with next-generation cosmological probes. Adding an Abelian gauge sector to axion-inflation models makes for a rich, interesting, phenomenology spanning from primordial black holes to gravitational waves (GWs). Several recent studies employ an approximate analytic (Gaussian) template to characterize the effect of gauge field production on cosmological perturbations. In this work we go beyond such approximation and numerically study particle production and the ensuing scalar and tensor spectra. We find a significant deviation from results based on log-normally distributed vector field excitations. As an important phenomenological application of the improved method, we study the expected chirality and spectral index of the sourced GW background at scales relevant for current and next-generation GW detectors. One striking feature is that of a scale-dependent chirality. We derive a consistency relation between these two observables that can serve as an important tool in identifying key signatures of multi-field dynamics in axion inflation.

    15. Generation of vortex electrons by atomic photoionization id::id在线阅读
    I. I. Pavlov, A. D. Chaikovskaia, D. V. Karlovets
    We explore the process of orbital angular momentum (OAM) transfer from a twisted light beam to an electron in atomic ionization within the first Born approximation. The characteristics of the ejected electron are studied regardless of the detection scheme. We find that the outgoing electron possesses a definite projection of OAM when a single atom is located on the propagation axis of the photon, whereas the size of the electron wave packet is solely determined by the energy of the photon rather than by its transverse coherence length. Shifting the position of the atom yields a finite dispersion of the electron OAM. We also study a more experimentally feasible scenario -- a localized finite-sized atomic target -- and develop representative approaches to describing coherent and incoherent regimes of photoionization.

    16. Superradiance Protects Unitary Evolution on the Boundary id::id在线阅读
    Brett McInnes
    It has been argued that the rate at which the interior of an AdS black hole evolves is dual to the rate of unitary evolution of the strongly coupled matter on the boundary which, according to holography, is dual to the black hole. However, we have shown elsewhere that it seems to be possible, by adjusting the specific angular momentum of an AdS$_5$-Kerr black hole, to reduce this rate to (effectively) zero. We argue that this is unphysical, and that it is prevented by the intervention of a superradiant instability with a ``grey galaxy'' as the end state. We also argue that this claim (that unitary evolution is preserved by superradiance, and not by some other instability) might be confirmed by an experimental observation of a specific temperature-dependent upper bound on the specific angular momentum of actual strongly coupled matter -- $\,$ in particular, by the observation of such a bound in samples of the Quark-Gluon Plasma with extremely large vorticities.

    17. $K^-d\rightarrow\pi\Lambda N$ reaction with in-flight kaons for studying the $\Lambda N$ interaction id::id在线阅读
    Shunsuke Yasunaga, Daisuke Jido, Takatsugu Ishikawa
    The $\Lambda N$ invariant mass spectra for the reactions $K^-d\rightarrow\pi^-\Lambda p$ and $K^-d\rightarrow\pi^0\Lambda n$ are calculated for experimental study of isospin symmetry breaking in the $\Lambda N$ scattering at low energies, the difference in the scattering lengths and effective ranges of $\Lambda p$ and $\Lambda n$ systems. The calculations are performed for in-flight kaons with a momentum of 1000 MeV/c, employing partial wave analysis up to the p-wave for meson-baryon amplitudes and the spin-flip term for baryon-baryon amplitudes. Kinematic selection is utilized to suppress the background processes, involving the angular selection of pions to the forward direction and selecting nucleons with higher momentum. It is worth noting that isospin symmetry breaking in the $\Lambda N$ system can be extracted from the observed deviations in that breaking in the $\Lambda N$ invariant mass spectra for the $K^-d\rightarrow\pi\Lambda N$ reaction.

    18. $\pi$ phase ambiguity of cosmic birefringence id::id在线阅读
    Fumihiro Naokawa, Toshiya Namikawa, Kai Murai, Ippei Obata, Kohei Kamada
    We point out that the rotation angle $\beta$ of cosmic birefringence, which is a recently reported parity-violating signal in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), has a phase ambiguity of $n\pi \,(n\in\mathbb{Z})$. This ambiguity has a significant impact on the interpretation of the origin of cosmic birefringence. Assuming an axion-like particle as the origin of cosmic birefringence, this ambiguity can be partly broken by the anisotropic cosmic birefringence and the shape of the CMB angular power spectra. We also discuss constraints on $\beta$ from existing experimental results.

    19. Constraints for electron-capture decays mimicking production of axion-like particles in nuclei id::id在线阅读
    Aagrah Agnihotri, Jouni Suhonen, Hong Joo Kim
    We give for the first time, theoretical estimates of ground-state-to-ground-state (GS-to-GS) electron-capture (EC) branch decay rates of $^{44}$Ti, $^{57}$Co, and $^{139}$Ce. The nuclear-structure calculations have been done exploiting the nuclear shell model (NSM) with well-established Hamiltonians and an advanced theory of $\beta$ decay. In the absence of experimental measurements of these GS-to-GS branches, these estimates are of utmost importance for terrestrial searches of axion-like particles (ALPs). Predictions are made for EC-decay rates of 2$^{nd}$-forbidden unique (FU) and 2$^{nd}$-forbidden non-unique (FNU) EC transitions that can potentially mimic nuclear axion production in experiments designed to detect ALPs in nuclear environments.

    20. Axial vector transition form factors in holographic QCD and their contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon id::id在线阅读
    Josef Leutgeb, Anton Rebhan
    We evaluate axial vector transition form factors in holographic QCD models that have been shown to reproduce well recent experimental and theoretical results for the pion transition form factor. Comparing with L3 data on $f_1\to\gamma\gamma^*$ we find remarkable agreement regarding the shape of single-virtual form factors. In the double-virtual case, the holographic results differ strongly from a simple dipole form, and this has an important impact on the corresponding estimate of the axial vector contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon $a_\mu$ through hadronic light-by-light scattering. We demonstrate that hard-wall models satisfy the Melnikov-Vainshtein short-distance constraint for the latter, if and only if the infinite tower of axial vector states is included. The results for $a_\mu$, however, are strongly dominated by the first few resonances. Numerically, these results turn out to be surprisingly large: (2.9 - 4.1)$\times 10^{-10}$ in the hard-wall models, 57-58% of which are due to the longitudinal contribution, which is the one responsible for the Melnikov-Vainshtein short-distance constraint. Rescaling the holographic result to obtain an optimal fit of L3 data, but then matching only 52% of the asymptotic constraint, the result is reduced to $2.2(5)\times 10^{-10}$, which is still significantly larger than most previous phenomenological estimates of the axial vector exchange contribution.

    21. White dwarfs as a probe of exceptionally light QCD axions id::id在线阅读
    Reuven Balkin, Javi Serra, Konstantin Springmann, Stefan Stelzl, Andreas Weiler
    We study the effects of exceptionally light QCD axions on the stellar configuration of white dwarfs. At finite baryon density, the non-derivative coupling of the axion to nucleons displaces the axion from its in-vacuum minimum which implies a reduction of the nucleon mass. This dramatically alters the composition of stellar remnants. In particular, the modifications of the mass-radius relationship of white dwarfs allow us to probe large regions of unexplored parameter space without requiring that axions are dark matter.

    22. Isospin sum rules in charmed baryon weak decays id::id在线阅读
    Jin-Feng Luo, Di Wang
    Isospin symmetry is the most precise flavor symmetry. The effective Hamiltonian of charm quark weak decay is zero under the isospin lowering operators $I_-^n$, which permits us to generate isospin sum rules through several master formulas. In this work, we derive the master formulas of isospin sum rules for the two- and three-body non-leptonic decays of singly and doubly charmed baryons. Hundreds of isospin sum rules are derived to test of isospin symmetry and provide hints for the new decay modes. The isospin sum rules for multi-body decays are not broken by the intermediate resonances and hence can be used to study the isospin partners of exotic hadrons.

    23. On the role of soft gluons in collinear parton densities and parton shower event generators id::id在线阅读
    M. Mendizabal, F. Guzman, H. Jung, S. Taheri Monfared
    The role of soft (non-perturbative) gluons in collinear parton densities and parton shower event generators is investigated with the Parton Branching method as a solution of the DGLAP evolution equations. It is found that soft gluons play a significant role.
    Within the Parton Branching frame, the Sudakov form factor can be split into a perturbative and non-perturbative part. The non-perturbative part can be calculated analytically under certain conditions. It is shown that the inclusion of soft (non-perturbative) gluons in the parton density evolution is essential for the proper cancellation of divergent terms. It is argued that the non-perturbative part of the Sudakov form factor has its correspondence in Transverse Momentum Dependent parton distributions. Within the Parton Branching approach, this non-perturbative Sudakov form factor is constrained by fits of inclusive, collinear parton densities.
    We show that the non-perturbative Sudakov form factor and soft gluon emissions are essential for inclusive distributions (collinear parton densities and Drell-Yan transverse momentum spectra). We also show by using Parton Branching TMD parton shower, that the effect of soft gluons plays essentially no role in final state hadron spectra and jets.

    24. Multi Higgs Boson Signals of a Modified Muon Yukawa Coupling at a Muon Collider id::id在线阅读
    Radovan Dermisek, Keith Hermanek, Taegyu Lee, Navin McGinnis, Sangsik Yoon
    We study di-Higgs and tri-Higgs boson productions at a muon collider as functions of the modification of the muon Yukawa coupling resulting from new physics parameterized by the dimension 6 mass operator. We show that the di-Higgs signal can be used to observe a deviation in the muon Yukawa coupling at the 10 % level for $\sqrt{s} = 10$ TeV and at the 3.5 % level for $\sqrt{s} = 30$ TeV. The tri-Higgs signal improves the sensitivity dramatically with increasing $\sqrt{s}$, reaching 0.8 % at $\sqrt{s} = 30$ TeV. We also study all processes involving Goldstone bosons originating from the same operator, discuss possible model dependence resulting from other operators of dimension 6 and higher, and identify multi-Higgs productions and one additional process as golden channels. We further extend the study to the two Higgs doublet model type-II and show that di-Higgs and tri-Higgs signals involving heavy Higgs bosons can be enhanced by a factor of $(\tan \beta)^6$, which results in the potential sensitivity to a modified muon Yukawa coupling at the $10^{-6}$ level already at a $\sqrt{s} = 10 $ TeV muon collider. The results can be easily customized for other extensions of the Higgs sector.

    25. Ultrahigh frequency primordial gravitational waves beyond the kHz: The case of cosmic strings id::id在线阅读
    Géraldine Servant, Peera Simakachorn
    We investigate gravitational-wave backgrounds (GWBs) of primordial origin that would manifest only at ultra-high frequencies, from kilohertz to 100 gigahertz, and leave no signal at either LIGO, Einstein Telescope, Cosmic Explorer, LISA, or pulsar-timing arrays. We focus on GWBs produced by cosmic strings and make predictions for the GW spectra scanning over high-energy scale (beyond $10^{10}$ GeV) particle physics parameters. Signals from local string networks can easily be as large as the Big Bang nucleosynthesis/cosmic microwave background bounds, with a characteristic strain as high as $10^{-26}$ in the 10 kHz band, offering prospects to probe grand unification physics in the $10^{14}-10^{17}$ GeV energy range. In comparison, GWB from axionic strings is suppressed (with maximal characteristic strain $\sim 10^{-31}$) due to the early matter era induced by the associated heavy axions. We estimate the needed reach of hypothetical futuristic GW detectors to probe such GWB and, therefore, the corresponding high-energy physics processes. Beyond the information of the symmetry-breaking scale, the high-frequency spectrum encodes the microscopic structure of the strings through the position of the UV cutoffs associated with cusps and kinks, as well as potential information about friction forces on the string. The IR slope, on the other hand, reflects the physics responsible for the decay of the string network. We discuss possible strategies for reconstructing the scalar potential, particularly the scalar self-coupling, from the measurement of the UV cutoff of the GW spectrum.

    26. Top-Bottom Interference Contribution to Fully-Inclusive Higgs Production id::id在线阅读
    Michał Czakon, Felix Eschment, Marco Niggetiedt, Rene Poncelet, Tom Schellenberger
    We evaluate the top-bottom interference contribution to the fully-inclusive Higgs production cross section at next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD. Although bottom-quark-mass effects are power-suppressed, the accuracy of state-of-the-art theory predictions makes an exact determination of this effect indispensable. The total effect of the interference at 13 TeV is $-1.99(1)^{+0.30}_{-0.15}$ pb, while the pure $\mathcal{O}(\alpha_s^4)$ correction is 0.43 pb. With this result, we address one of the leading theory uncertainties of the cross section.

    27. Electromagnetic properties of vector doubly-charmed tetraquark states id::id在线阅读
    U. Özdem, K. Azizi
    We conduct a systematic study of the electromagnetic properties of multiquark systems with undetermined internal structures. Motivated by the recent observation of the $T_{cc}^+$ state, we apply the light-cone version of the QCD sum rule method to extract the magnetic dipole moments of several possible doubly-charmed vector tetraquark states. When analyzing the magnetic dipole moment of these states, they are modeled to have the diquark-antidiquark configurations. The magnetic dipole moments for the members are extracted as $ \mu_{T_{cc \bar{u} \bar{d}}} = 1.17^{+0.44}_{-0.32} \, \mu_N$, $ \mu_{T_{cc \bar{u} \bar{s}}} = 1.35^{+0.50}_{-0.37} \, \mu_N$, $ \mu_{T_{cc \bar{d} \bar{s}}} = -2.69^{+1.02}_{-0.75} \, \mu_N$, $ \mu_{T_{cc \bar{u} \bar{u}}} = 1.33^{+0.56}_{-0.40} \, \mu_N$, $ \mu_{T_{cc \bar{d} \bar{d}}} = 1.41^{+0.57}_{-0.43} \, \mu_N$ and $ \mu_{T_{cc \bar{s} \bar{s}}} = 1.44^{+0.53}_{-0.41} \, \mu_N$. Comparing the results obtained for the magnetic dipole moments of the $T_{cc \bar{u} \bar{d}}$ state with the $T_{cc \bar{u} \bar{s}}$ state, the $U$-symmetry is seen to be broken at about $\%15$, while for the $T_{cc \bar{d} \bar{d}}$ and $T_{cc \bar{s} \bar{s}}$ states, this symmetry is minimally broken. The obtained results may be useful to determine the true nature of these new interesting states.

    28. Electroweak Phase Transition in Singlet Extensions of The Standard Model with Dimension-Six Operators id::id在线阅读
    V.K. Oikonomou, Apostolos Giovanakis
    The significance of the electroweak phase transition is undeniable, and although initially it was believed that it was second-order, it is now believed that it is a first-order transition. However, it is not a strong first-order phase transition in the context of the Standard Model and the remedy to this issue is to use the Higgs portal and directly couple the Higgs to a hidden scalar sector. This can result in a strong electroweak phase transition, while the couplings to a hidden scalar are constrained by several phenomenological constraints, such as the sphaleron rate criterion and the branching ratio of the Higgs to invisible channels. In this work, we consider the standard singlet extensions of the Standard Model, including dimension-six non-renormalizable operators that couple a real singlet scalar field with the Higgs doublet. As a result, we examine the effects of those Higgs-singlet couplings on the electroweak phase transition. The effective theory, where the non-renormalizable couplings originate from, is considered to be active beyond 15$\,$TeV. As we show, the Universe experiences a two-step electroweak phase transition, a primary phase transition in the singlet sector at a high temperature, and then a subsequent first-order phase transition from the singlet vacuum to the electroweak vacuum. The singlet's phase transition can either be second-order or first-order, depending on the singlet mass and its couplings to the Higgs. In particular, we show that the dimension-six operator assists in generating a strong electroweak phase transition in regions of the parameter space that were excluded in the previous singlet extensions of the Standard Model. This is further apparent for low singlet masses \(m_S < m_H/2\) which are rarely taken into account in the literature due to the invisible branching ratio of the Higgs boson.

    29. Impact of local CP-odd domain in hot QCD on axionic domain-wall interpretation for NANOGrav 15-year Data id::id在线阅读
    Linlin Huang, Yuanyuan Wang, He-Xu Zhang, Shinya Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki Ishida, Mamiya Kawaguchi, Akio Tomiya
    We argue that the axionic domain-wall with a QCD bias may be incompatible with the NANOGrav 15-year data on a stochastic gravitational wave (GW) background, when the domain wall network collapses in the hot-QCD induced local CP-odd domain. This is due to the drastic suppression of the QCD bias set by the QCD topological susceptibility in the presence of the CP-odd domain with nonzero $\theta$ parameter of order one which the QCD sphaleron could generate. We quantify the effect on the GW signals by working on a low-energy effective model of Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type in the mean field approximation. We find that only at $\theta=\pi$, the QCD bias tends to get significantly large enough due to the criticality of the thermal CP restoration, which would, however, give too big signal strengths to be consistent with the NANOGrav 15-year data and would also be subject to the strength of the phase transition at the criticality.

    30. Effects of tensor spin polarization on the chiral restoration and deconfinement phase transitions id::id在线阅读
    Yan-Ru Bao, Sheng-Qin Feng
    Effects of tensor spin polarization (TSP) on the chiral restoration and deconfinement phase transitions are studied in Polyakov loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model. For chiral phase transition, the higher the polarized degree of quark-antiquark pairs under the strong magnetic field, the higher the phase transition temperature. The TSP corrects the position of the critical end point. The small impact of TSP on the phase transition temperature is found for the deconfinement phase transition. On the other hand, we divide the phase space into three ranges based on the phase diagram obtained from the PNJL model: the confinement phase with chiral symmetry broken, the deconfinement phase with restored chiral symmetry, and the confinement phase with restored chiral symmetry (quarkyonic phase). It is found that TSP has only a very small effect on the anisotropic pressure in the deconfined phase with chiral symmetry restored and the quarkyonic phase, but it has a very strong effect on the anisotropic pressure in the confined phase with chiral symmetry broken. This is because TSP is closely related to chiral symmetry. The restoration of chiral symmetry means the dissociation of spin polarization condensate.

    31. Model-independent Odderon results based on new TOTEM data on elastic pp collisions at 8 TeV id::id在线阅读
    T. Csörgő, T. Novák, R. Pasechnik, A. Ster, I. Szanyi
    Evaluating the H(x, s; pp) scaling function of elastic proton-proton (pp) collisions from recent TOTEM data at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV and comparing it with the same function of elastic proton-antiproton (pp-) data of the D0 collaboration at sqrt(s) = 1.96 TeV, we find, from this comparison alone, an at least 3.79 sigma {\signal} of Odderon exchange. If we combine this model independently obtained result with that of a similar analysis but using TOTEM elastic pp scattering data at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV, which resulted in an at least 6.26 {\sigma} signal, the combined significance of Odderon exchange increases to at least 7.08 {\sigma}, model independently. Further combinations of various datasets in the TeV energy range are detailed in the manuscript

    32. Spontaneous Leptogenesis with sub-GeV Axion Like Particles id::id在线阅读
    Arghyajit Datta, Soumen Kumar Manna, Arunansu Sil
    A derivative coupling of an axion like particle (ALP) with a B-L current may lead to the baryon asymmetry of the universe via spontaneous leptogenesis provided a lepton number breaking interaction prevails in thermal equilibrium. Conventionally, such scenario works only for heavy ALPs and high reheating temperature due to the fact that the same lepton number breaking contribution is tied up with neutrino mass generation also. In this work, we propose inert Higgs doublet assisted lepton number violating operator to relieve such tension so as to generate lepton asymmetry (of freeze-in/out type) with a much lower reheating temperature that can accommodate light (sub-GeV) ALPs sensitive to current and future ALP searches.

    33. Radiative Transitions in Charmonium from Lattice QCD id::id在线阅读
    James Delaney, Christopher E. Thomas, Sinéad M. Ryan
    The coupling of various charmonium mesons to a photon is studied using lattice QCD, giving access to radiative form factors and transitions, and probing the mesons' structure. Methods are developed which allow the robust determination of amplitudes, including those involving an excited state as well as multiple form factors, for a range of kinematics. These are applied in dynamical lattice QCD calculations using the distillation technique to compute the underlying three-point correlation functions. Form factors and amplitudes involving the low-lying charmonia, $\eta_c$, $J/\psi$, $\chi_{c0}$ and $\eta_c'$, are calculated, demonstrating the methods and providing the first dynamical lattice QCD results for some quantities.

    34. Gravitational Radiation from hyperbolic encounters in the presence of dark matter id::id在线阅读
    Abhishek Chowdhuri, Rishabh Kumar Singh, Kaushik Kangsabanik, Arpan Bhattacharyya
    In this study, we look into binaries undergoing gravitational radiation during a hyperbolic passage. Such hyperbolic events can be a credible source of gravitational waves in future detectors. We systematically calculate fluxes of gravitational radiation from such events in the presence of dark matter with different profiles, also considering the effects of dynamical friction. We provide an estimate for the braking index and show how it evolves due to the presence of the dark matter medium. We also investigate the binary dynamics through the changes in the orbital parameters by treating the potential due to dark matter spike and the dynamical friction effects as a perturbation term. An insight into the effects of such a medium on the binaries from the corresponding osculating elements opens up avenues to study binary dynamics for such events.

    35. Light Fields during Inflation from BOSS and Future Galaxy Surveys id::id在线阅读
    Daniel Green, Yi Guo, Jiashu Han, Benjamin Wallisch
    Primordial non-Gaussianity generated by additional fields present during inflation offers a compelling observational target for galaxy surveys. These fields are of significant theoretical interest since they offer a window into particle physics in the inflaton sector. They also violate the single-field consistency conditions and induce a scale-dependent bias in the galaxy power spectrum. In this paper, we explore this particular signal for light scalar fields and study the prospects for measuring it with galaxy surveys. We find that the sensitivities of current and future surveys are remarkably stable for different configurations, including between spectroscopic and photometric redshift measurements. This is even the case at non-zero masses where the signal is not obviously localized on large scales. For realistic galaxy number densities, we demonstrate that the redshift range and galaxy bias of the sample have the largest impact on the sensitivity in the power spectrum. These results additionally motivated us to explore the potentially enhanced sensitivity of Vera Rubin Observatory's LSST through multi-tracer analyses. Finally, we apply this understanding to current data from the last data release of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS DR12) and place new constraints on light fields coupled to the inflaton.

    36. A gamma ray study of Galactic PeVatron candidates LHAASO J1825-1236 and LHAASO J1839-0545 id::id在线阅读
    Rubens Jr. Costa, Debora B. Gotz, Rita C. Anjos, Luiz. A. Stuani Pereira, Alexandre J. T. S. Mello
    Recent studies by LHAASO have shown the presence of high-luminosity PeVatrons in our Galaxy. We examine two notable sources, each consisting of two pulsars, detected by LHAASO. We study gamma and cosmic-ray emissions from the surroundings of these pulsars. We used the Gammapy software to perform gamma-ray measurements from these sources in anticipation of future analyses to be carried out with the CTA observatory, which is now under development. Furthermore, the particle propagation throughout the Galaxy was simulated using the GALPROP software, accounting for emission from energy losses due to spin-down. As a result, we present the particle spectra generated during this propagation phase along with the corresponding gamma-ray emission. The findings suggest that CTA may have the capability to detect these sources and show that the data can be explained by gamma rays coming from a leptonic model.

    37. Revisiting the stochastic QCD axion window: departure from equilibrium during inflation id::id在线阅读
    Vadim Briaud, Kenji Kadota, Shinji Mukohyama, Alireza Talebian, Vincent Vennin
    If dark matter is made of QCD axions, its abundance is determined by the vacuum expectation value acquired by the axion field during inflation. The axion is usually assumed to follow the equilibrium distribution arising from quantum diffusion during inflation. This leads to the so-called stochastic window under which the QCD axion can make up all the dark matter. It is characterised by $10^{10.4}\mathrm{GeV}\leq f\leq 10^{17.2}\mathrm{GeV}$ and $H_{\mathrm{end}}>10^{-2.2}\mathrm{GeV}$, where $f$ is the axion decay constant and $H_{\mathrm{end}}$ is the Hubble expansion rate at the end of inflation. However, in realistic inflationary potentials, we show that the axion never reaches the equilibrium distribution at the end of inflation. This is because the relaxation time of the axion is much larger than the typical time scale over which $H$ varies during inflation. As a consequence, the axion acquires a quasi-flat distribution as long as it remains light during inflation. This leads us to reassessing the stochastic axion window, and we find that $ 10^{10.3}\mathrm{GeV}\leq f\leq 10^{14.1}\mathrm{GeV}$ and $H_{\mathrm{end}}>10^{-13.8}\mathrm{GeV}$.

    38. Observational constraints on extended Proca-Nuevo gravity and cosmology id::id在线阅读
    Fotios K. Anagnostopoulos, Emanuel N. Saridakis
    We confront massive Proca-Nuevo gravity with cosmological observations. The former is a non-linear theory involving a massive spin-1 field, that can be extended incorporating operators of the Generalized Proca class, and when coupled to gravity it can be covariantized in a way that exhibits consistent and ghost-free cosmological solutions, without experiencing instabilities and superluminalities at the perturbative level. When applied at a cosmological framework it induces extra terms in the Friedmann equations, however due to the special non-linear construction the field is eliminated in favor of the Hubble function. Thus, the resulting effective dark energy sector is dynamical, however it contains the same number of free parameters with the $\Lambda$CDM concordance model. We use data from Supernovae Ia (SNIa) and Cosmic Chronometers (CC) observations and we construct the corresponding likelihood-contours for the free parameters. Interestingly enough, application of various information criteria, such as AIC, BIC and DIC, shows that the scenario of massive Proca-Nuevo gravity, although having exactly the same number of free parameters with $\Lambda$CDM paradigm, it is more efficient in fitting the data. Finally, the reconstructed dark-energy equation-of-state parameter shows statistical compatibility with the model-independent, data-driven reconstructed one.

    39. An alternative to perturbative renormalization in 3+1 dimensional field theories id::id在线阅读
    Paul Romatschke
    Perturbative renormalization provides the bedrock of understanding quantum field theories. In this work, I point out an alternative way of renormalizing quantum field theories, which is naturally encountered and well known for the case of large N scalar field theories. In terms of bare parameters, this non-perturbative alternative renormalization differs qualitatively from its perturbative cousin: in the continuum limit, the bare coupling constant goes to zero instead of infinity, and there is no wave-function counterterm. Despite these differences, the resulting n-point functions of the theory are finite. I provide explicit results for alternative renormalization for the O(N) model and QCD with $N_f=12$ flavors in 3+1 dimensions.

    40. Astrophysical Equation-of-State Constraints on the Color-Superconducting Gap id::id在线阅读
    Aleksi Kurkela, Krishna Rajagopal, Rachel Steinhorst
    We demonstrate that astrophysical constraints on the dense-matter equation of state place an upper bound on the color-superconducting gap in dense matter above the transition from nuclear matter to quark matter. Pairing effects in the color-flavor locked (CFL) quark matter phase increase the pressure at high density, and if this effect is sufficiently large then the requirements of causality and mechanical stability make it impossible to reach such a pressure in a way that is consistent with what is known at lower densities. The intermediate-density equation of state is inferred by considering extensions of chiral effective field theory (CEFT) to neutron star densities, and conditioning these using current astrophysical observations of neutron star radius, maximum mass, and tidal deformability (PSR J0348+0432, PSR J1624-2230, PSR J0740+6620, GW170817). At baryon number chemical potential $\mu = 2.6~\text{GeV}$ we find a 95% upper limit on the CFL pairing gap $\Delta$ of $457~\text{MeV}$ using overly conservative assumptions and $216~\text{MeV}$ with more reasonable assumptions. This constraint may be strengthened by future astrophysical measurements as well as by future advances in high density QCD calculations.

    41. The Galactic center excess at the highest energies: morphology and photon-count statistics id::id在线阅读
    Silvia Manconi, Francesca Calore, Fiorenza Donato
    The nature of the GeV gamma-ray Galactic center excess (GCE) in the data of Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) is still to be unveiled. We present a new analysis of the inner Galaxy Fermi-LAT data at energies above 10 GeV, based on an innovative method which combines the skyFACT adaptive template fitting with and the 1pPDF pixel-count statistics. We find a strong evidence for the GCE also at high energies, $\sigma > 5$ regardless of the GCE spatial template. Remarkably, our fits prefer the bulge morphological model over the dark matter one at high significance, and show no evidence for an additional dark matter template on top of the bulge component. Through the 1pPDF analysis, we find that the model best describing the gamma-ray data requires a smooth, diffuse GCE following a bulge morphology, together with sub-threshold point sources. The 1pPDF fit reconstructs a consistent population of faint point sources down at least to $10^{-12}$ ph cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. Between $10^{-12}$ ph cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ and $10^{-11}$ ph cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ the 1pPDF measures a number of point sources significantly higher than the ones in the Fermi 4FGL catalog. The robustness of our results brings further support to the attempt of explaining, at least partially, the high-energy tail of the GCE in terms of a population of point sources, likely corresponding to millisecond pulsars.

    42. No $\nu$s is Good News id::id在线阅读
    Nathaniel Craig, Daniel Green, Joel Meyers, Surjeet Rajendran
    The baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) analysis from the first year of data from the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), when combined with data from the cosmic microwave background (CMB), has placed an upper-limit on the sum of neutrino masses, $\sum m_\nu < 70$ meV (95%). In addition to excluding the minimum sum associated with the inverted hierarchy, the posterior is peaked at $\sum m_\nu = 0$ and is close to excluding even the minumum sum, 58 meV at 2$\sigma$. In this paper, we explore the implications of this data for cosmology and particle physics. The sum of neutrino mass is determined in cosmology from the suppression of clustering in the late universe. Allowing the clustering to be enhanced, we extended the DESI analysis to $\sum m_\nu < 0$ and find $\sum m_\nu = - 160 \pm 90$ meV (68%), and that the suppression of power from the minimum sum of neutrino masses is excluded at 99% confidence. We show this preference for negative masses makes it challenging to explain the result by a shift of cosmic parameters, such as the optical depth or matter density. We then show how a result of $\sum m_\nu =0$ could arise from new physics in the neutrino sector, including decay, cooling, and/or time-dependent masses. These models are consistent with current observations but imply new physics that is accessible in a wide range of experiments. In addition, we discuss how an apparent signal with $\sum m_\nu < 0$ can arise from new long range forces in the dark sector or from a primordial trispectrum that resembles the signal of CMB lensing.